Performance Analysis and Instructional Design in Five Phases

Performance Analysis Instructional System Design Nine Events of Instruction ADDIEThe five phases below describe how we might go from determining that training is the appropriate intervention through the process of actually designing and building training materials, particularly eLearning. I plan to discuss these five phases in greater detail in additional comments, but I want to put the five phases together and in perspective, relative to one another.

1. Performance Analysis (Mager & Pipe)

The process of performance analysis informs us of the symptoms (if we don’t already know them) and more importantly the causes of a performance gap. After we know the cause then we can design appropriate interventions. Managers sometimes jump to the conclusion that more training, or refresher training, is the answer to a performance gap. The research of Mager and Pipe, and others shows us that this may not be the case. Before designing an intervention, we must look into the cause of the performance gap. The Mager and Pipe Analyzing Performance Problems model is an excellent starting point in that discovery process. In the case of training for new processes or training of newly hired associates, there won’t be a performance gap that we have to analyze. This is because we already know the performance gap. However, Performance Analysis is still the first thing we should consider.

2. Instructional System Design (Dick & Carey)

After we’ve determined that instruction is the way, or one of the ways, to close a performance gap, we map the instructional strategy by following the steps in the Dick and the Carey Systems Approach Model for Designing Instruction. The core of this model is to develop instructional goals based upon the performance goals within the context of the learners and an instructional analysis. The instructional analysis tells us what our learners have to know in order to perform the tasks we want them to perform. After determining the objectives, we develop how we’re going to assess how well learners meet the objectives (pretests, post-tests, practice, etc.,). From there we can develop and test materials in an iterative process.

3. Nine Events of Instruction (Gagné)

Robert Gagné provides us with a useful outline and organization of what should be included in a course. Here are his nine steps, or events of instruction.

  1. Get their attention. Why is this important to the learner?
  2. Objectives: What will the learner/performer gain from the instruction?
  3. Integrate with existing knowledge: Ask for recall of existing relevant knowledge.
  4. Provide content
  5. Guide learners
  6. Elicit performance: Learners respond to demonstrate knowledge.
  7. Provide feedback
  8. Assess performance
  9. Enhance retention and transfer to other contexts

4. Develop Materials (PADDIEM)

After completing the analysis and planning in the three phases above, we’re ready to put pen to paper and design our materials. We may start with a title and an outline, or just the outline and work out the title later. From the outline, we flesh out the content. We basically write a script, then a storyboard, then go to the authoring tools. We could use whatever project management (PM) methodology that makes sense. A PM process depends upon the size and scope of the project. Larger projects probably require more rigorous PM. The ADDIE model is often mentioned as a basic foundation for PM. We get PADDIEM when we add project management, the P, and maintenance, the M, to the ADDIE model. Who developed the ADDIE model? Good Question. No one seems to know.

5. Testing, Evaluation, Maintenance

Although the ADDIE (or PADDIEM) model includes implementation, evaluation and maintenance, I think these items deserve to be on the same level with the other four phases. Depending upon what we develop, we are going to have to test it at various stages and from various perspectives. We have to test publishing and implementing in whatever platform we use for that purpose. We also have to evaluate its effectiveness at changing behavior. This however, may have to wait until the eLearning is deployed. And after we have deployed our eLearning (or other intervention), it may require some maintenance. The project may have to be updated due to; the audience in the LMS, content, or technology (or all of these!).

Leave the Unnecessary Out, Out of Your Writing

Get the out outToo frequently, the word out is used with certain verbs when it is completely unnecessary, and in fact grammatically incorrect. Here are some examples:

  • Coupons will be emailed out in December
  • Please print out the documents before the meeting
  • Send out an email to staff to tell them about the changes
  • Separate them out
  • Please fill out all required fields

Check a dictionary

If you check a dictionary you’ll find that these verbs do not carry the bonus out at the end:

  • To print out
  • To send out
  • To separate out
  • To mail out
  • To clean out
  • To rent out
  • To empty out
  • To tweet out
  • To balance out

Emphasis should be on the root

When your read or hear someone say send out, you may notice that the emphasis seems to be on the word out. The emphasis should be on the root verb, send. Isn’t the construction so much better without the out? Most writers and editors know this. I wish all writers would catch on.